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Chinese Herbs: Selling Strychnine

August 2013 Footnotes

By Narda Robinson, DVM, DO, Dipl. ABMA, FAAMA

Posted: August 21, 2013, 10:45 a.m. EDT

These are the footnotes for Dr. Robinson's August 2013 Evidence Based Medicine column, Chinese Herbs: Selling Strychnine.

FOOTNOTES
1 Strom S.  China's food play extends its reach, already mighty.  The New York Times.  May 29, 2013.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.nytimes.com%252f2013%252f05%252f30%252fbusiness%252fwariness-over-a-deal-intended-to-deliver-more-pork-to-china.html%253fpagewanted%253dall%2526amp%253b_r%253d0 on 05-30-13.
2 Ro S.  A Chinese company is buying America's biggest pork company.  Business Insider.  May 29, 2013.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http%3a%2f%2fwww.businessinsider.com%2fsmithfield-farms-acquired-by-chinas-shuanghui-2013-5 on 05-30-13.
3 Associated Press.  China's Shuanghui in $4.7B deal for Smithfield.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.npr.org%252ftemplates%252fstory%252fstory.php%253fstoryId%253d187023308 on 05-30-13.
4 LaFraniere S.  In China, fear of fake eggs and 'recycled' buns.  The New York Times.  May 7, 2011.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.nytimes.com%252f2011%252f05%252f08%252fworld%252fasia%252f08food.html%253f_r%253d1%2526amp%253bref%253dfoodsafety on 05-30-13.
5 Harris ESJ, Cao S, Littlefield BA, et al.  Heavy metal and pesticide content in commonly prescribed individual raw Chinese herbal medicines.  Sci Total Environ.2011;409(20):4297-4305.
6 Euroherbs Website.  Double P II 900 g Powder.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.euroherbsshop.nl%252fdouble-p-ii-900g-powder-p-3131.html%253flanguage%253dEN%2526amp%253bosCsid%253d52b2a5681fc2f2f6c67667236d9c6631 on 05-26-13.
7 Xie H. TCVM treatment of intervertebral disk disease.  TCVM News.  2011, Issue 14.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http%3a%2f%2fwww.tcvm.com%2fdoc%2fTCVMNews2011MayR.pdf on 05-30-13.
8 American Veterinary Medical Association website.  Principles of veterinary medical ethics of the AVMA.  "It is unethical for veterinarians to promote, sell, prescribe, dispense, or use secret remedies or any other product for which they do not know the ingredients."  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=https%3a%2f%2fwww.avma.org%2fKB%2fPolicies%2fPages%2fPrinciples-of-Veterinary-Medical-Ethics-of-the-AVMA.aspx on 05-30-13.
9 Frank LR and Xie H.  Intervertebral disc disease:  an integrative approach.  FVMA's 82nd Annual Conference Proceedings.    Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.fvmace.org%252fFVMA%25252082nd%252520Annual%252520Conference%252fProceedings%252fINTERVERTEBRAL%252520DISC%252520DISEASE-%252520AN%252520INTREGRATIVE%252520APPROACH.html on 05-26-13.
10 Clemmons Capt. RM.  IRC, US Public Health Service.  Chapter 7. Integrated Traditional Chinese Veterinary Neurology.  Accessed at dog2doc.com/chi-files/madrid/TCVM-Neurology-revised.doc? on 05-26-13.
11 Chi Institute CE Approval Status - 2013 Program.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.tcvm.com%252fdoc%252fChi%252520Program%252520CE%252520Approval%252520Status%252520Report%2525202013.pdf on 05-26-13.
12 TCVM News.  Voice of Jing Tang.  "Chi Institute has donated $30,000 to University of Florida resident program."  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http%3a%2f%2fwww.tcvm.com%2fdoc%2fTCVMNews2010DecR.pdf on 05-30-13.
13 TCVM News.  Voice of Jing Tang Herbal.  2011; Issue 15.  Summer 2011.  "Over $50,000 valued herbs from Jing Tang has been donated for research in University of Florida and University of Tennessee" etc.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.tcvm.com%252fdoc%252fTCVMNews2011AugR.pdf  on 05-30-13.
14 Skeptvet Blog.  The American Holistic Veterinary Medical Foundation:  Science of Salesmanship?  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http%3a%2f%2fskeptvet.com%2fBlog%2f2012%2f09%2fthe-american-holistic-veterinary-medical-foundation-science-of-salesmanship%2fcomment-page-1%2f on 05-30-13.
15 Skeptvet Blog. University of Tennessee veterinary school recognizes "excellence" in alternative medicine.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fskeptvet.com%252fBlog%252f2013%252f05%252funiv-of-tennessee-veterinary-school-recognizes-excellence-in-alternative-medicine%252f on 05-30-13.
16 Shmalberg J, Hill RC, and Scott KC.  Nutrient and metal analyses of Chinese herbal products marketed for veterinary use.  Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition.  2013;97:305-314.
17 US. Environmental Protection Agency website.  Strychnine.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.epa.gov%252foppsrrd1%252fREDs%252ffactsheets%252f3133fact.pdf on 05-30-13.
18 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website.  Emergency preparedness and response.  Facts about strychnine.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.bt.cdc.gov%252fagent%252fstrychnine%252fbasics%252ffacts.asp on 05-26-13.
19 Mol HGJ, Van Dam RCJ, Zomer P, et al.  Screening of plant toxins in food, feed and botanicals using full-scan high-resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry.  Food Additives and Contaminants.  2011;28(10):1405-1423.
20 Kong H-Y, Zhou W, Guo P-H, et al. Safety of individual medication of Ma Qian Zi (Semen strychni) based upon assessment of therapeutic effects of Guo's therapy against moderate fluorosis of bone.  Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  2011;31(4):297-302.
21 Wu M, Fang M, Hu Y, et al.  Four types of traditional Chinese medicine inducing epileptic seizures.  Seizure. 2012;21:311-315.
22 Chen J, Wang X, Qu Y-G, et al.  Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica after transdermal administration: Effects of changes in alkaloid composition.  Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  2012;139:181-188.
23 Chen J, Wang X, Qu Y-G, et al.  Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica after transdermal administration: Effects of changes in alkaloid composition.  Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  2012;139:181-188.
24 Chan TYK.  Herbal medicine causing likely strychnine poisoning.  Human & Experimental Toxicology.  2002;21:467-468.
25 Sagman M. Think your dog's good is 100% China free?  Don't count on it.  DogFoodAdvisor website.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=%2fredirect.aspx%3flocation%3dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.dogfoodadvisor.com%252fdog-food-industry-exposed%252fdog-food-chin%252f on 05-26-13.
26 Not Made in China - a collection of China-free toys and household products.  Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http%3a%2f%2fwww.chinafreechristmas.info on 05-26-13.

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