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Cruciates: Less Cutting, More Self-Repair

November 2013 Footnotes

By Narda Robinson, DO, DVM

Posted: November 15, 2013, 12:00 p.m. EDT

These are the footnotes for Dr. Robinson's November 2013 Evidence Based Medicine column, Cruciates: Less Cutting, More Self-Repair.

1 Delince P and Ghafil D. Anterior cruciate ligament tears: conservative or surgical treatment?  Letter to the editor. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. DOI: 10.1007/s00167-012-2123-2.
2 Vyas D, Semakula B, Elson LE, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament tear: surgical reconstruction versus nonsurgical management. PM R. 2012;4(12):1006-1014.
3 Cook SA, Beetem J, and Cook JL. Comparison of long-term outcomes associated with three surgical techniques for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs. Veterinary Surgery. 2013;42:329-334.
4 Personal communication with physical medicine colleagues and fellow pain practitioners.
5 Butler JR, Syrcle JA, McLaughlin RM, et al. The effect of tibial tuberosity advancement and meniscal release on kinematics of the cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle during early, middle, and late stance. Vet Comp ORthop Traumatol. 2011;24:342-349.
6 Lee H-M, Cheng C-K, and Liau J-J. Correlation between proprioception, muscle strength, knee laxity, and dynamic standing balance in patients with chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. The Knee. 2009;16:387-391.
7 Reed-Jones RJ and Vallis LA. Proprioceptive deficits of the lower limb following anterior cruciate ligament deficiency affect whole body steering control. Exp Brain Res. 2007;182:249-260.
8 Bonfim TR, Grossi DB, Paccola CAJ, et al. Additional sensory information reduces body sway of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Neuroscience Letters. 2008;441:257-260.
9 Citations for acupuncture, massage, and laser therapy previously reviewed in earlier columns:,, and
10 Gworys K, Gasztych J, Puzder A, et al. Influence of various laser therapy methods on knee joint pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja. 2012;3(6):14:269-277.
11 Doom M, de Bruin T, de Rooster H, et al. Immunopathological mechanisms in dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2008;125:143-161.
12 Personal communication, through email and in person, with dog caregivers wanting to avoid surgery for their lame dogs.
13 Bergh MS and Peirone B. Complications of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2012;25:349-358.
14 Molsa SH, Hielm-Bjorkman AK, and Laitinen-Vapaavuori OM. Use of an owner questionnaire to evaluate long-term surgical outcome and chronic pain after cranial cruciate ligament repair in dogs: 253 cases (2004-2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;243:689-695.
15 Brydges NM, Argyle DJ, Mosley JR, et al. Clinical assessments of increased sensory sensitivity in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. The Veterinary Journal. 2012;193:545-550.
16 Safire W. Language: you break it, you own it, you fix it. The New York Times. October 18, 2004. Accessed at: /redirect.aspx?
17 Micheo W, Hernandez L, and Seda C. Evaluation, management, rehabilitation, and prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury: current concepts. PM&R, 2010: 2:935-944.
18 Finnoff JT. Preventive exercise in sports. PM&R. 2012;4:862-866.
19 Adams P, Bolus R, Middleton S, et al. Influence of signalment on developing cranial cruciate rupture in dogs in the UK. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 2011;52:347-352.
20 Hayashi K, Manley PA, and Muir P. Cranial cruciate ligament pathophysiology in dogs with cruciate disease: a review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2004;40:385-390.
21 Wucherer KL, Conzemius MG, Evans R, et al. Short-term and long-term outcomes for overweight dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture treated surgically or nonsurgically. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;242:1364-1372.
22 Baker SJ and Baker GJ. Surgical versus nonsurgical management for overweight dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Letter to the Editor. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;243(4):479.
23 Dhillon MS, Bali K, Prabhakar S. Differences among mechanoreceptors in healthy and injured anterior cruciate ligaments and their clinical importance. Muscles, Ligaments, and Tendons Journal. 2012;2(1):38-43.
24 Owen JL, Campbell S, Falkner SJ, et al. Evidence in practice. Is there evidence that proprioception or balance training can prevent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in athletes without previous ACL injury? Physical Therapy. 2006;86(10):1436-1440.
25 Hayes GM, Granger N, Langley-Hobbs SJ, et al. Abnormal reflex activation of hamstring muscles in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. The Veterinary Journal. 2013;196(3):345-350.
26 Kanno N, Amimoto H, Hara Y, et al. In vitro evaluation of the relationship between the semitendinosus muscle and cranial cruciate ligament in canine cadavers. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73:672-680.
27 Andrews S, Shrive N, and Ronsky J. The shocking truth about meniscus. Journal of Biomechanics. 2011;44:2737-2740.
28 Kim SE, Lewis DD, and Pozzi A. Effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy on femorotibial subluxation: in vivo analysis during standing. Veterinary Surgery. 2012;41:465-470.
29 Dhillon MS, Bali K, and Prabhakar S. Proprioception in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees and its relevance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Indian J Orthop. 2011;45(4):294-300.
30 Hodgin P. Medicine is war: and other medical metaphors. British Medical Journal. 1985;291:1820-1821.

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