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How 'Green' Are Your Omega-3 Supplements?

September 2012 Footnotes

By Narda Robinson, DO, DVM

Posted: Aug. 28, 2012, 1:15 p.m. EDT

These are the footnotes for Dr. Narda Robinson's September 2012 Evidence-based Medicine column, How 'Green' Are Your Omega-3 Supplements?

1. Burger J, Gaines KF, Boring CS, et al. Effects of cooking on radiocesium in fish from the Savannah River: exposure differences for the public. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;46:231-235.

2. FishOilSafety.com. Is fish oil safe? Accessed at www.fishoilsafety.com on 07-04-12.

3. FishOilSafety.com. Fish oil supplements. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://www.fishoilsafety.com/?page_id=10 on 07-04-12.

4. Environmental Defense Fund. How safe are fish oil supplements? Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://apps.edf.org/page.cfm?tagID=19376 on 07-04-12.

5. Ashley JTF, Ward JS, Schafer MW, et al. Evaluating daily exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish oil supplements. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2010;27(8):1177-1185.

6. Bell JG, Dick JR, Strachan F, et al. Complete replacement of fish oil with a blend of vegetable oils affects dioxin, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 3 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families differing in flesh adiposity. Aquaculture. 2012;324-325:118-126.

7. Fernandes AR, Rose M, White S, et al. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish oil dietary supplements: Occurrence and human exposure in the UK. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2006;23(9):939-947.

8. Bourdon JA, Bazinet TM, Arnason TT, et al. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements: Implications for daily intake of dioxins and PCBs. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010;48:3093-3097.

9. gCaptain. Fukushima – Is the crisis over for the Pacific? Forbes.com. May 29, 2012. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://enenews.com/forbes-source-says-radiation-detected-in-some-fish-oil-samples-could-fukushima-disaster-be-a-cataclysmic-event on 07-04-12.

10. Zabarenko D. Fukushima radiation seen in tuna off California. Reuters. May 28, 2012. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/28/us-japan-nuclear-tuna-idUSBRE84R0MF20120528 on 07-05-12.

11. Madigan DJ, Baumann Z, and Fisher NS. Pacific bluefin tuna transport Fukushima-derived radionuclides from Japan to California. PNAS Early Edition. Accessed at www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1204859109 on 07-3-12.

12. Kuta S. Radiation from Japan nuclear plant reaches Colorado; officials say no threat. Daily Camera. March 23, 2011. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://www.dailycamera.com/news/ci_17682076 on 07-3-12.

13. Buck EH and Upton HF. Effects of radiation from Fukushima Dai-ichi on the US marine environment. Congressional Research Service. April 2, 2012.

14. Roslin A. Canada: Fish eaters threatened by Fukushima radiation. The Vancouver Sun. January 16, 2012.

15. Roslin A. Canada: Fish eaters threatened by Fukushima radiation. The Vancouver Sun. January 16, 2012.

16. Burger J, Gaines KF, Boring CS, et al. Effects of cooking on radiocesium in fish from the Savannah River: exposure differences for the public. Faculty Research & Creative Activity. Paper 60. 2004. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://thekeep.eiu.edu/bio_fac/60/ on 07-03-12.

17. The Ocean Foundation website. Resources – About our oceans. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://www.oceanfdn.org/newsroom/about-our-oceans on 07-04-12.

18. US Environmental Protection Agency. Aquatic Biodiversity. Overexploitation of Species. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://www.epa.gov/bioiweb1/aquatic/overexpl.html on 07-04-12.

19. US Environmental Protection Agency. Aquatic Biodiversity. Overexploitation of Species. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://www.epa.gov/bioiweb1/aquatic/overexpl.html on 07-04-12.

20. Anonymous. Illinois shark fin ban: first inland state adopts policy against fin sale, trade. Huff Post Chicago. July 2, 2012. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/02/illinois-shark-fin-ban-fi_n_1643587.html on 07-05-12.

21. One Health Initiative website. Mission statement. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/mission.php on 07-04-12.

22. Calder PC. Fatty acids and inflammation: the cutting edge between food and pharma. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;668 Suppl 1: S50-S58.

23. Calder PC. Mechanisms of action of (n-3) fatty acids. J Nutr. 2012;592S-599S.

24. Willett WC. Dietary fats and coronary heart disease. J Intern Med. 2012;272(1):13-24.

25. Calder PC. Fatty acids and inflammation: the cutting edge between food and pharma. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;668 Suppl 1: S50-S58.

26. Calder PC. Immunomodulation by omega-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2007;77:327-335.

27. Tan JS, Wang JJ, Flood V, et al. Dietary fatty acids and the 10-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2099;127(5):656-665.

28. Cunningham E. Are krill oil supplements a better source of n-3 fatty acids than fish oil supplements? Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(2):344.

29. Jowit J. Krill fishing threatens the Antarctic. The Observer. March 22, 2008. Accessed at /redirect.aspx?location=http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/mar/23/fishing.food

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