By Laura Gaylord, DVM, DACVIM (Nutrition), Board Certified Veterinary Nutritionist®, Fuquay Varina, N.C. • Virbac
One of the most common questions we are asked as veterinarians is, “How much should I feed?”
Given that currently >60percent of our clients’ pets are overweight, this question is critically important.1 As veterinarians we need to ask, “How can we support our clients in choosing the best foods so that they can feed their pets appropriately?” At each exam we might assess the pet’s weight and body condition score, then, when pressed for time, simply say, “Just feed less.” Yet this answer may not be providing the best advice for the pet or the client.
Eighty-five percent of our dogs and 93 percent of our cats are spayed and neutered2
While spaying and neutering is advocated for virtually all dogs and cats, this intervention does have consequences. It is the largest risk factor for obesity for our pets.3,4 This happens primarily through a decrease in metabolic rate and an increase in desire for food intake.5-7 The removal of sex hormones can result in an increased appetite, up to 63percent in dogs and 23percent in cats.8,9 If no changes in diet are instituted, weight gain is likely.
“Just feed less” may ignore the amount of food being fed and the diet type
This is critical information needed to confirm that the pet is consuming the proper amount of food and the best diet appropriate for its life stage. Can the diet be safely reduced in quantity and still meet nutritional needs? We need to collect information about other foods, treats, etc., that are offered, as these could be unbalancing the total daily diet.
“Just feed less” may create hungry pets
Hungry pets beg. Food and treats are an expression of our love for our pets and an important part of the human-animal bond. Not acknowledging this and failing to have strategies to manage begging may result in clients giving in to their pet. As “food is love,” “just feed less” may feel like we are giving less “love.” Reducing the volume of food fed reduces the volume of food within the stomach, which is a known trigger for satiety.10,11 With average diets, less food also means reducing intakes of protein (amino acids) and fiber, two nutrients that have been confirmed to help reduce voluntary food intakes and begging behaviors in dogs.12,13
“Just feed less” may put pets at risk of nutrient deficiencies
Studies have confirmed that restricting adult maintenance diets and weight management diets will result in nutrient intakes that fall below recommended guidelines from the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and the Recommended Allowances from the National Research Council (NRC).14-17
Changing puppies or kittens from growth diets directly to adult foods while still within their growth phase is not an optimal recommendation. Diets intended to support growth have been specifically formulated to provide the necessary higher levels of amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, even up to two to three times that provided in adult maintenance foods. This means that if we select an adult diet prematurely when growth is still occurring, we are potentially underfeeding nutrients needed for optimal development.18
It is often difficult to clinically appreciate the effects of nutrient deficiencies in our pets unless they are severe.
Protein or amino acid deficiencies may manifest as poor muscling and skin/haircoat, poor immune function and even heart disease (dilated cardiomyopathy). Insufficient intake of omega-3 fatty acids may result in poor nervous system and/or retinal development as well as suboptimal trainability in young dogs. Severe mineral deficiencies may result in suboptimal growth, impacts on bone metabolism, pica, muscle dysfunction, anemia and even fluid imbalances. Vitamin deficiencies may cause poor growth, impaired bone metabolism, poor skin, mucous membrane and haircoat quality, anemia, nervous and cardiovascular system dysfunction, impaired clotting as well as many other adverse effects.19,20 The best option is to ensure a proper diet is fed, with adequate nutrient levels included to support growth to its completion.
How then do we intervene and do better?
It starts at the puppy and kitten visits. We need to train our technicians and nurses to take good diet histories (what food, how much, how many treats/snacks, etc.) and document this at every visit. Make nutrition important! Just having the discussion acknowledges that we care about nutrition, that we are interested and that we understand the powerful tools that nutrition and food are in our pets’ lives. Train staff to check body weight when the pet is present for any visit, and we can also teach them to be excellent at body condition scoring and muscle mass scoring. Document this information consistently in the medical record and follow it throughout the pet’s life. We can also track diet changes and how these have impacted the pet’s health over its lifetime.
Train clients to do body condition scoring
Making clients proactive in monitoring their pets can prevent excessive weight gain or at least catch it before it is affecting a pet’s health status. Start talking about calories or kcals in foods early and often so that clients will monitor this and appreciate how much their pet is eating. Adjust feeding amounts according to changes in body weight. Give specific guidelines and recommendations for exact foods and feeding amounts. Suggest a defined limit on treats. Teach clients that they should use a gram scale to weigh foods rather than cup volume measurements, especially for smaller dogs and cats.
Most importantly, choose diets that set us up for success
Feeding a diet that provides a lower caloric density, higher protein and higher fiber level will promote satiety, reduce potential begging behaviors and may prevent weight gain. A critical time to assess diet and feeding amounts is at the time of spay or neuter. It is our obligation as veterinarians to educate our clients on the changes that have occurred with this procedure. We can put steps in place to keep pets healthy and at an optimal body weight.
Key factors of weight management success are compliance and follow-up for any recommendations made concerning diet 21-23
This means we must have continued interaction with our clients after recommendations are given to ensure they understand and are following our recommendations moving forward. Scheduled rechecks can enhance our ability to keep clients on track as well as build our veterinary client-patient relationship. Keeping in touch with clients often will greatly improve success in achieving our weight management goals.
Our goal as veterinarians is to support optimal health in pets throughout every life stage
Educating clients about weight management and choosing the best diet for the pet is part of optimal wellness care. We can proactively choose diets at the time of spaying and neutering that provide optimal nutrient levels such as protein and fiber to promote satiety, reduce begging and prevent weight gain, rather than telling clients to “Just feed less.” This intervention alone will reduce that pet’s risk of disease conditions associated with obesity, improve quality of life and potentially extend their life span by avoiding weight gain.
- Larsen JA, Villaverde C. Scope of the problem and perception by owners and veterinarians. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2016 Sep;46(5):761-772.
- The 2017-2018 APPA National Pet Owners Survey Debut. American Pet Products Association.
- Kutzler MA. Possible relationship between long-term adverse health effects of gonad-removing surgical sterilization and luteinizing hormone in dogs. Animals (Basel). 2020;10(4):599.
- Martin LJM, Siliart B, Dumon HJW, Nguyen PG. Hormonal disturbances associated with obesity in dogs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2006;90(9-10):355-360
- Allaway D, Gilham M, Colyer A, Morris PJ. The impact of time of neutering on weight gain and energy intake in female kittens. J Nutr Sci. 2017;6:e19.
- Phungviwatnikul T, Valentine H, de Godoy MRC, Swanson KS. Effects of diet on body weight, body composition, metabolic status, and physical activity levels of adult female dogs after spay surgery. J Anim Sci. 2020;98(3):skaa057.
- Schauf S, Salas-Mani A, Torre C, Bosch G, Swarts H, Castrillo C. Effect of sterilization and of dietary fat and carbohydrate content on food intake, activity level, and blood satiety-related hormones in female dogs. J Anim Sci. 2016;94(10):4239-4250.
- Kanchuk ML, Backus RC, Calvert CC, Morris JG, Rogers QR. Neutering induces changes in food intake, body weight, plasma insulin and leptin concentrations in normal and lipoprotein lipase-deficient male cats. J Nutr. 2002;132(6 Suppl 2):1730S-1732S.
- Jeusette I, Detilleux J, Cuvelier C, Istasse L, Diez M. Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2004;88(3-4):117-121.
- Pappas TN, Melendez RL, Debas HT. Gastric distension is a physiologic satiety signal in the dog. Dig Dis Sci. 1989;34(10):1489-1493.
- Serisier S, Pizzagalli A, Leclerc L, et al. Increasing volume of food by incorporating air reduces energy intake. J Nutr Sci. 2014;3:e59.
- Jewell DE, Toll PW, Novotny BJ. Satiety reduces adiposity in dogs. Vet Ther. 2000;1(1):17-23.
- Weber M, Bissot T, Servet E, Sergheraert R, Biourge V, German AJ. A high-protein, high-fiber diet designed for weight loss improves satiety in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21(6):1203-1208.
- Gaylord L, Remillard R, Saker K. Risk of nutritional deficiencies for dogs on a weight loss plan. J Small Anim Pract. 2018;59(11):695-703.
- Linder DE, Freeman LM, Morris P, et al. Theoretical evaluation of risk for nutritional deficiency with caloric restriction in dogs. Vet Q. 2012;32(3-4):123-129.
- Grant CE, Shoveller AK, Blois S, Bakovic M, Monteith G, Verbrugghe, A. Dietary intake of amino acids and vitamins compared to NRC requirements in obese cats undergoing energy restriction for weight loss. BMC Vet Res.
- Keller E, Sagols E, Flanagan J, Biourge V, German AJ. Use of reduced-energy content maintenance diets for modest weight reduction in overweight cats and dogs. Res Vet Sci. 2020;131:194-205.
- Officials AoAFC. Model Regulations for Pet Food and Specialty: Pet Food Under the Model Bill In: Green K, ed. 2019 Official Publication. Champaign, IL, 2019;139-225.
- Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remillard RL, Roudebush P, Novotny BJ, eds. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition. 4th Ed. Mark Morris Institute; 2000.
- Council NR. Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Nutrient Concentrations. In: Nutrition AHCoDaC, ed. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. The National Academy of Sciences; 2006:355-373.
- Porsani MYH, Teixeira FA, Amaral AR, et al. Factors associated with failure of dog’s weight loss programmes. Vet Med Sci. 2020;6(3):299-305.
- Brooks D, Churchill J, Fein K, et al. 2014 AAHA weight management guidelines for dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2014;50(1):1-11.
- Saker KE, Remillard RL. Performance of a canine weight-loss program in clinical practice. Vet Ther. 2005;6(4):291-302.
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This Education Center article was underwritten by Virbac.